Primers in bold were designed during this work. B: Schematic diagram of the SSU gene.
The genera of Myxomycetes
Numbers indicate corresponding regions in the sequence of Physarum polycephalum X Green bars show intron insertion positions and green labels show intron names. List of specimens used in this study, GenBank accession numbers and collection information. Analyzed the data: AMF-D. Wrote the paper: AMF-D. Browse Subject Areas?
Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Abstract The phylogenetic position of the slime-mould genus Lamproderma Myxomycetes, Amoebozoa challenges traditional taxonomy: although it displays the typical characters of the order Stemonitales, it appears to be sister to Physarales. Introduction Myxomycetes or plasmodial slime-moulds are distinctive amoebae that form macroscopic fruiting bodies, very common on litter or decaying logs in forests.
Download: PPT. Figure 2. DNA extraction, amplification and sequencing DNA was extracted from 5—6 adjacent sporophores most probably arising from a single plasmodium using the DNeasy plant mini-kit Qiagen, Hilden, Germany. Alignments and secondary structure prediction We obtained 35 nearly complete — bp excluding introns and 14 partial the first ca.
Results Phylogenetic analyses The trees obtained with the three alignments , and nt were compared. Figure 3.
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Relations between phylogeny and some morphological characters. Introns We founded introns in all nine insertion sites previously recorded for Myxomycetes  Table S2. Discussion Characters distinguishing Lamproderma and allied genera Lamproderma Rostaf. Diverging rates of evolution between clades A striking characteristic of the phylogenetic tree is the variation in branch lengths: specimens ascribed to the same species e. Diversity of Echinosteliales In this order, two families are currently recognized: Clastodermataceae including Clastoderma and the monospecific Barbeyella  ; and the monogeneric Echinosteliaceae.
Conclusions Our study highlights certain morphological characters that are relatively stable and phylogenetically informative, in this case the shining peridium to delimit the genus Lamproderma , the splitting-out peridium as a characteristic of the genus Meriderma even when not pronounced, as in Comatricha rubens. Supporting Information. Supporting Information S1.
Figure S1. Table S1. Table S2. Length, position and number of introns found in SSU sequences. Acknowledgments We thank all persons who have provided specimens and photos. References 1.
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Eur J Protistol 21— View Article Google Scholar 2. Protist — View Article Google Scholar 3. Lado C Nomenmyx. A nomenclatural taxabase of Myxomycetes. Cuad Trab Flora Micol Iber 1— View Article Google Scholar 4. Folia Parasitologica 1— View Article Google Scholar 6. View Article Google Scholar 7. Karpov SA, Mylnikov AP Ultrastructure of the colourless flagellate Hyperamoeba flagellata with specifical reference to the flagellar apparatus. Eur J Protistol — View Article Google Scholar 8.
J Euk Microbiol — View Article Google Scholar 9. View Article Google Scholar Mycologia 54— Schnittler M, Mitchell DW Species diversity in Myxomycetes based on morphological species concept—a critical examination.
Stapfia 55— Olive LS The Mycetozoans. New York: Academic Press. Clark J Myxomycete reproductive systems: Stemonitis species. Mycologia — Collins ONR Myxomycete genetics, — J Elisha Mitchell Sci Soc — Mycosphere 1: — Nova Hedwigia — The genus Lamproderma I. Alassio, Italy: Edizioni Candusso. Sevrier, France. A worldwide assessment of altitudinal distribution.
Mycologia 1— Mycol Res — Kalyanasundaram I Capillitial development in Stemonitis.
Taxonomy of Fungi I. Subramanian C, editor: University of Madras, India. Publikationen zu Wissenschaftlichen Filmen, Sektion Biologie, 1— Protist 55— Mol Phyl Evol — Dennison ML The genus Lamproderma and its relationships. Mycologia 80— Kowalski DT The species of Lamproderma. Bull Soc Vaud Sci Nat — J Biogeogr — Ing B A ravine association of myxomycetes. Alexopoulos CJ Myxomycetes. In: The fungi: an advanced treatise. Madrid, Espana: Cramer, J. Band 3: Stemonitales.
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In this process, many cells aggregate to form a multicellular unit that ultimately becomes a fruiting body bearing asexual spores. Several other unrelated microorganisms undergo comparable processes, and in some it is evident that their multicellular development evolved from the differentiation process of encystation. While it has been argued that the dictyostelid fruiting body had similar origins, it has also been proposed that dictyostelid sorocarpy evolved from the unicellular fruiting process found in other amoebozoan slime moulds For the three microbial groups, , , and operational taxonomic units OTU were found.
For the latter group, we can relate OTUs to barcodes from fruit bodies sampled over a 4-year period. The alpha diversity of myxomycetes was positively correlated with that of bacteria. Vegetation type was found to be the main explanatory parameter for the community composition of all three groups and a substantial species turnover with elevation was observed The life cycles of two species of Myxomycetes in Physarales, Physarum rigidum and Didymium squamulosum.
Myxomycetes are eukaryotic microorganisms containing characteristics akin to both fungi and amoebae. They can complete their whole life cycles while being cultured on agar media, under-laboratory conditions, which favors taxonomic, phylogenetic and cytological researches. Here, we describe the life cycles of two such species: Didymium squamulosum collected from the field and Physarum rigidum cultured from moist chamber both belonging to the Order Physarales.
Three per cent oat-agar media OAM was used to culture the plasmodia until they aggregated, and were almost starved Plasmodial slime molds and the evolution of microbial husbandry. Detailed analyses into the life cycle of the soil-dwelling microbe Dictyostelium discoideum led to the conclusion that this "social amoeba" practices some form of "non-monoculture farming" via the transfer of bacteria to novel environments.
Herein, we show that in myxomycetes plasmodial slime molds or myxogastrids a similar "farming symbiosis" has evolved. Based on laboratory studies of two representative species in the genera Fuligo and Didymium, the sexual life cycle of these enigmatic microbes that feed on bacteria was reconstructed, with reference to plasmo- and karyogamy Myxomycetes plasmodial slime molds are abundant protist predators that feed on bacteria and other microorganisms, thereby playing important roles in terrestrial nutrient cycling. Despite their significance, little is known about myxomycete communities and the extent to which they are affected by nutrient availability.
We studied the influence of long-term addition of N, P and K on the myxomycete community in a lowland forest in the Republic of Panama. In a previous study, microbial biomass increased with P but not N or K addition at this site Identification of the "bean smut" reported in in abstracts from two conferences was later disseminated by a Plant Disease Note; citations in books, papers, and blogs; and in several official sites, including databases curated by the United States Department of Agriculture and Embrapa-Brazil.
After seeing the illustration of the syndrome in , the need became clear for a review of the so-called bean smut. Keller, J.
Schoknecht Kelleromyxa, a new generic name for Licea fimicola Myxomycetes. Lado, M. Two new species of Myxomycetes from a tropical deciduous forest of Mexico. Gams, W.
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